Oyster-Mushroom-Crop-Management
Oyster Mushroom Crop Management
मशरूम की खेती

Oyster Mushroom Step-by-Step Revolutionary Production Technology 2020

Did You Know About Mushroom?

Mushroom could be a fungicide of special sorts of fungi, which is also known by the name of footu, chhatri, bibhobra, dhigari etc. India is extremely backward in mushroom production.

Also read the Mushroom production and prospects all over the world & India 2020

oyster-mushroom

oyster-mushroom
oyster mushroom

The mushroom research and production rate of growth here is satisfactory. Today, about 2 million tonnes of mushroom is being produced in India, of which 85% is white button mushroom. The second-order is an oyster mushroom, para mushroom, and milky mushroom.

Did You Know The Property Of Mushroom?

Mushroom is a crucial food of the fashionable era thanks to its nutritious, curative, delicious, and special aroma.

The amazing ability to form fruit without leaves, without buds, without flowers, whose use as a food, as a tonic, as a drug, the whole origin is effective.

Adequate natural of mushroom grows in India thanks to the adaptability of weather and dense forests.

Also, read the What are medicinal mushrooms? and Nutritional Value of Mushrooms

oyster-mushroom

oyster-mushroom
oyster mushroom

The villagers use it with great fervor. States like Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Kerala, Gujarat, West Bengal, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, and Rajasthan even have an interest in oyster mushrooms, hence there’s a high demand for commercially produced oyster mushrooms in these areas.

From the research work done by the Agricultural College and Research Facility, it has been concluded that three types of mushrooms are often grown commercially in this region:

3 Most liked species in India:

  1. Button mushroom
  2. Oyster Mushroom (Dhingari Mushroom) 
  3. Milky Mushroom (Milky)

In this article, we talking about Oyster Mushroom (Dhingari Mushroom).

Oyster Mushroom (Dhingari Mushroom) :

Oyster mushroom is a delicious mushroom. It also has more medicinal properties than other mushrooms. The name oyster fungus is extremely common in North India.

Also, read the What is contract farming? Advantages and challenges in India 2020

yellow-oyster-mushroom

yellow-oyster-mushroom
yellow oyster mushroom

The scientific name of this mushroom is Pleurotus. Oyster mushrooms are grown mainly in China, Malaysia, South Korea, Japan, Italy, Thailand, Taiwan, and also the Philippines. the dimensions of the oyster fungus varies somewhat from the white button.

It is like an enormous spoon in shape, which is named Chhatrak. in several species of oyster fungus, the beehive is of various colors like white, brown, yellow, pink, brown, etc.

The upper a part of the beehive is somewhat pressed, round, and smooth, and therefore the lower surface has long stripes called gills or Seed holders are called. Crores of small spores are formed on the gills. The oyster mushroom’s bead rests on a little stalk.

Species of oyster mushrooms:

Many popular species of oyster mushrooms are commercially produced in the world, including : 

  • Pleurotus citranopiliatus
  • Pleurotus sapidus
  • Pleurotus Sajor-Cashew
  • Pleurotus Florida
  • Pleurotus eous
  • Pleurotus ostreatus
  • Pleurotus djamor
  • Pleurotus flabellate

oyster mushroom means less investment and big profit :

  • No manure has got to be made to grow oyster mushrooms. they will be grown in simple and cheap thatch rooms or mud-brick houses.

 

  • Wheat husk, paddy straw, maize leaves, and pulses of peel, husk, soybean, peas, and mustard residues and cotton hulls are often used for all types of waste items to grow oyster mushrooms. Therefore, it is often cultivated in every corner of our country.

 

  • There are many species of oyster mushrooms which will be grown in summer and lots of such species which will be grown in winter.

 

  • Its yield cycle is extremely short. Therefore, the harvest starts 20 to 25 days after sowing.

 

  • Oyster mushrooms, like other mushrooms, have all the nutritious ingredients and are rich in vitamins, proteins, and salts.

 

  • Oyster mushroom yields are often dried within the sun easily and dry Dhingari is often used as needed.

Method of growing oyster mushrooms:

Oyster mushroom cultivation is completed in six stages:

  1. Hut arrangement
  2. Medium selection and preparation
  3. Sowing
  4. Seed dispersal
  5. Care and harvesting
  6. Mushroom Crop Management

Also read the King Oyster (Pleurotus eryngii)Mushroom Production Best Technology

1. Hut arrangement : 

In the hut, rakes are prepared with wooden sticks and through these bags are hung. The hut could also be made from mud, weed, or leaves and hard.

Also read the Reishi Mushroom History, Benefits, Side-effects, Production Technology

Sunlight shouldn’t enter it but there should be an adequate exchange of air. Moisture within the hut is extremely important.

It should be between 80-90 percent. Sprinkling of water could also be repeated within the presence of reduced moisture.

Spraying of water is often done by sprayers on the bottom and bags just in case of the utmost temperature. The temperature inside the hut is 20–28 ° C. it’s good for the expansion of oyster mushrooms, light for quarter-hour each day is sufficient for mushroom growth.

The amount of CO2 should be reduced when mushroom fungus spreads within the hut and fewer when edible mushrooms grow.

Arrangements should be made to vent the heated air through the fan. However, this sort of problem isn’t found during a hut made from grass.

protect against pests you’ll use Nuvan Solution once every week within the mushroom house at the speed of 0.1 percent of Nuvan Solution (in 1 ml/liter of water) on the ground and walls. Should be sprinkled

Take care of mushroom houses a day. within the case of diseases and pests etc., immediately take measures to regulate them.

Pay special attention to the cleanliness of the mushroom. Use a mask when plucking the mushrooms so that the mushroom seeds don’t enter the body through respiration.

After 15-20 days, the expansion of the fungus within the para-cucumber causes the whole sac to seem milky colored, then remove the sac completely. At this point, the space between the 2 bags should be 10-12 inches.

2. Medium selection and preparation : 

Any straw you would like to use has got to be treated and ready first so that harmful microorganisms present in it are often destroyed.

Because of these micro-organisms, the mushroom mycelium doesn’t spread well and doesn’t yield good yields. There are mainly four methods of treating straw:

(A) By hot water :

Wheat straw or paddy straw is stuffed in plastic mesh bags and kept in hot water for 45-60 minutes. After adding the straw, the water temperature should be 60-65 ° C.

Also read the Wood Ear Mushroom Production Technology, Benefits, Side-effects, History

After this, the straw is aloof from the water and placed on a mesh so that the waster is removed. Somewhere the waste is removed during a couple of minutes by putting the straw within the machines like washing clothes. When cold, this straw is spread on clean tarpaulin or plastic and sowing is completed. The solar energy-based device also can be accustomed to get hot water.

(B) Chemical Sterilization :

In this method, we dip 10 kg of straw for 18 hours in 100 liters of water, containing 7.5 grams of bavistin and 125 ml of Formalin.

After this, the straw is removed on top of the mesh so that the waste-water is removed and also the formalin also blows. after 3-4 hours, When the moisture is around 65% seeds are added to that. This method takes longer to spread the spawn.

(C) Pasteurization method :

This method is suitable for mushroom growers who have a pasteurization room for making compost for the production of button mushroom and boiler facilities.

In this method, the straw is first wetted on paved floors and piled up. Now, this pile is inverted every other day. Four days later it is filled in the pasteurization room. with the help of blower maintain the room temperature.

The temperature is then maintained from the boiler at 60 ° C for 6 hours and 40–56 ° C for about 30–40 hours. After this, we mix seed in the straw when it reaches about 20 – 30 ° C.

(D) Autoclave method :

Add bran or flour to the soaked straw at a rate of 2-5 percent.
Bran or flour should be mixed well within the straw, otherwise it can cause many green fungal problems.

After this, fill about 4-5 kg of bran mixed polypropylene bag. Close the mouth of the bags thoroughly and keep the filled fruits in an autoclave machine for half an hour at 121 ° C temperature so that the filled straw becomes sterile.

After disinfecting, mix spawn at a rate of 2.5 percent after cooling. In autoclaved bags, the spawn is mixed in front of the streamline flow.

3. Sowing : 

There are several species of Dhingri which can be grown mainly in the winter (15-20 ′ Celsius) or the summer (20-30 ° C).

Therefore, according to the season in which the land has to be cultivated, it is selected. In cold climates, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus Florida, Pleurotus cornucopia, and Pleurotus eryngii are the main ones, and in summer Pleurotus Sajor caju, Pleurotus sapidus, Pleurotus flaviletl, Pleurotus citrinopileatus and Pleurotus membranaceus are the main ones.

Oyster mushroom seeds are selected by selecting the acceptable medium (wheat bran) for mushroom production. Mushroom spawn within the medium is mixed by various methods.

To examine healthy seeds, white, fresh, whole grains should be covered, good quality, high production capacity. Fresh seed always gives higher yield.

Seed mixing is completed at the rate of 3 percent or 30 grams of seeds per kg of the wet medium. The bottle must be shaken to get rid of the seeds from the bottle.

A spoon or piece of wire could also be used if required. The seeds are mixed well during a sterilized practica during a clean place or on a polythene sheet.

After mixing, fill the above size bags and shut the mouth from above. the form of the luggage has an impact on mushroom production. Medium-sized bags (18 ″ X12 ″) have higher production, and larger-sized (20 ″ X16 ″) and smaller-sized (12 ″ X8 ″) bags are found to possess comparatively lower mushroom production.

Remember that one-quarter of the bag is empty. Tie the mouth of the bag with a rope and pierce the bag around with the needle so that air can enter inside the bag.

4. mycelium spreading in bags :

Oyster mushroom seeds are selected by selecting the acceptable medium (wheat bran) for mushroom production. Mushroom spawn within the medium is mixed by various methods.

mycelium-spreading-in-bags

mycelium-spreading-in-bags
mycelium spreading in bags

To examine healthy seeds, white, fresh, whole grains should be covered, good quality, high production capacity. Fresh seed always gives higher yield.

Seed mixing is completed at the rate of 3 percent or 30 grams of seeds per kg of the wet medium. The bottle must be shaken to get rid of the seeds from the bottle.

The seeds are mixed well during a sterilized practica during a clean place or on a polythene sheet.

After mixing, fill the above size bags and shut the mouth from above. the form of the luggage has an impact on mushroom production. Medium-sized bags (18 ″ X12 ″) have higher production, and larger-sized (20 ″ X16 ″) and smaller-sized (12 ″ X8 ″) bags are found to possess comparatively lower mushroom production.

Remember that one-quarter of the bag is empty. Tie the mouth of the bag with a rope and pierce the bag around with the needle so that air can enter inside the bag.

5. Care and Harvesting :

Dhingri yields will keep coming for 35 to 40 days and about 500 gms to 1000 gms of fresh mushroom are often obtained from one kg of dried straw. The yield of Dhingri depends on the quality of the straw and the quality of spawn we use.

After the dhingri seedling, the straw attached to the stalk is cut and removed after two hours, packed in perforated polythene, and sent to the market.

Care-and-Harvesting

Care-and-Harvesting
Care and Harvesting

The pink-colored dinghri mushroom contains a tough stalk and if possible, it should be cut slightly alongside removing the straw.

In other varieties, it’s not necessary. Dhingri also can be dried, For this keep the dhingri mushroom in a very clean cloth in the sunlight or a ventilated room for two to three days. Dry Dhingri should be sealed well.

It should be soaked in hot water for 10 minutes before using them again. Some people are allergic to the spores of Dhingri, so before getting to the assembly room, a skinny cloth should be tied on the nose and will enter the rooms shortly after opening the windows and doors.

When the border of the dhingri’s bead starts turning inwards, then we consider that the crop is prepared to harvest. To harvest Twist and break the full-grown mushrooms by hand.

The mushroom should be used within 8–10 hours after harvesting, otherwise it can be stored in a polythene bag or bamboo basket and kept in the refrigerator for 6-7 days.

6. Oyster Mushroom Crop Management :

These spawn mixed bags put in a wooden rake in the hut or through nylon rope to hold 4-5 bags on top of every other.

Oyster-Mushroom-Crop-Management

Oyster-Mushroom-Crop-Management
Oyster Mushroom Crop Management

The hut could also be made from earthen grass or leaves, bamboo mats, etc. Direct sunlight shouldn’t are available in the hut and temperature should be 25-28 degrees Celsius, humidity 75-85 percent, and proper arrangement of pure air.

When the humidity is low and therefore the temperature is high, spraying of water should be done internally on the bottom and hut walls by sprayer.

After 15-20 days of hanging the bags within the hut, the fungus of mushroom mold spreads to the whole medium, causing the medium to seem white milky color.

At this point, the polythene bags are cut and separated. this is often called the vegetative growth stage of mushroom.

Oyster-Mushroom-Crop-Management

Oyster-Mushroom-Crop-Management
Oyster Mushroom Crop Management

After the removal of the polythene bag, the nodular structure obtained, hangs it with a string of twine or nylon. this is often the reproductive stage of mushrooms.

Proper care of the bags is extremely important at this stage. The spacing between the 2 nodular structures should be 10–12 inches.

3-4 days after the removal of the sac, a white gingival structure is seen which is named the mold button or pinhead stage.

After 5-7 days this structure changes into a panegyric with a honeycomb shape. When the sides of the function begin to show inwards, then they rotate lightly and break it. this is often the edible a part of the mushroom.

In this way, the primary one is obtained in 23-26 days respectively. The second and third crops are obtained with a difference of 6 to 7 days respectively.

In this way, one crop takes 45-50 days and 4-5 crops will be taken from July to March.

Training of mushroom cultivation in India can be taken from the Horticulture Department.

 

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SUNIL YADAV
I was born into a farmer's family in a village near Banaras. I completed my studies in mechanical engineering and I am the first engineer in my village. Since childhood, I have been more attracted to nature and wanted to do something that would keep me connected to farms and farmers. I love to do research and collect the latest information about agriculture, horticulture and then I write articles about them. If my farmer brothers benefit even a little from the articles I write, I will consider myself very lucky.

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