mushroom-spawn
mushroom-spawn
मशरूम की खेती

Healthy Mushroom spawn production technology in India & it’s Equipment 2020

What is the difference between Spawn and Mushroom Spawn?

Mushroom seeds are technically called mushroom spawn and are fungi taken from a selected mushroom and grown on a convenient medium.

Mushroom-Spawn

Mushroom-Spawn
Mushroom Spawn

This medium supplements the fungus when it spreads. mushroom spawn is made in the laboratory by experts.

Most farmers buy ready-made mushroom spawn. Some large mushroom growers that grow throughout the year make their own mushroom spawn.

Everyone needs to know the method of preparation and precautions while purchasing.

 

mushroom-spores

mushroom-spores
mushroom spores

Mushroom Spawn Making Laboratory – Design and Description:

For the production of mushroom spawn, it is mandatory to build a laboratory in a clean place. To avoid pollution, the laboratory should be far away from the place of composting.

The physical size and map of the laboratory depending on different fields of work. An 80 feet long, 50 feet wide and 15 feet high laboratory will be sufficient for proper work, which is sufficient for making and storing thousands of bottles of mushroom spawn.

Spawn-Making-Laboratory

Spawn-Making-Laboratory
Spawn-Making-Laboratory

The laboratory should have a 20 feet long and 15 feet wide chamber for inoculation work. Similarly, two other 20 feet long and 15 feet wide size chambers should be in the laboratory for incubation and the preparation of culture medium.

mushroom spawn should be in the laboratory building for storage and arrangement of cells for an autoclave.

There should be a special arrangement for a clean water facility and debris clearance in the building premises.

Modern mushroom spawn lab should have the following cells :

  1. Office
  2. Storage Room
  3. Cold room
  4. Washing Room
  5. Boiling and Autoclave Room
  6. The incubation room
  7. pure culture bank
  8. Inoculation room
  9. Laboratory Room
  10. Stuffing Room
  11. Toilets

 

Special attention should be paid to the design of the insertion room and it should be air-conditioned. This place is the area of ​​investment, so a sterile environment should always remain in this room.

spawn-laboratory-design

spawn-laboratory-design
spawn laboratory design

Location at the entrance of the insertion room, insertion, And acts as a protective shield between the outdoor environment and there is a double door.

In addition to these cells, other rooms should be constructed as required. The following basic instruments and chemicals are required for a modern laboratory.

mushroom spawn production equipment:

1.  Large Autoclave (300 bags 1500-2000 liters capacity)

2.  small autoclaves (20 bags, 50-liters capacity)

3.  Two refrigerators

4.  A gas or electric stove

5.  A Laminar Air Flow

6.  PH meter, temperature, and weight machine

7. Test tubes and other glassware

8. Air Conditioner

9. Alcohol lamps, knives, neck rings

10. polypropylene bags, empty glass glucose bottles, matches, rubber bands, and racks.

 

Mushroom spawn production technology?

The method of making mushroom spawn is divided into three parts:

1. Preparation of pure culture

2. Preparation of mother spawn

3. Preparation of commercial spawn

 

1. Preparation of pure culture:

To make a pure culture, the appropriate artificial medium is sterilized by placing it in test tubes at a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch in the autoclave for 20 to 30 minutes.

There are several types of media used for this work, the main ones are malt extract agar, potato dextrose agar, compost extract agar, and wheat extract agar medium.

Major medium for making pure culture:

Potato dextrose agar medium:
  1. peeled potato – 200 gm
  2. Agar-Agar – 20 gm
  3. Dextrose – 20 gm
  4. Distilled water – 1 liter 
Oat Meal Agar Medium:
  1. Oat Meal Flakes 30 gm
  2. Agar-Agar – 20 gm
  3. Distilled water – 1 liter
Wheat extract medium:
  1. wheat grain – 32 gm
  2. Agar-Agar – 20 gm
  3. Distilled water 1 liter
Malt extract agar medium:
  1. malt extract-20 gm
  2. Agar-Agar – 20 gm
  3. Dextrose – 20 gm
  4. Distilled water – 1 liter
Compost Agar Medium:
  1. Pasteurized Compost – 150 gm
  2. Agar-Agar – 20 gm
  3. Distilled water – 1 liter

 

Method of making pure culture:

(A) By tissue culture :

To make culture from tissue, one should use a mushroom which is growing in the first plush and is good in appearance.

For this, a large size sterile and healthy mushroom is selected. The membrane of the mushroom should not be open or broken.

tissue-culture

tissue-culture
tissue culture

The lower part of the stem of the mushroom, where manure and soil are applied, is cut and cut with a sharp and treated knife and cleaned with alcohol from outside.

It is now cut into two equal parts with a knife treated in laminar airflow.

Small pieces of beehive and stem joining are removed with a sterilized needle and transferred to malt extract agar or other media, placed in glass test tubes.

These test tubes are kept at 25 °C temperature in the incubator and spread over the entire surface of the culture medium in the test tubes in 10 to 15 days.

(B) By Spore culture:

To prepare the spore culture, spore prints are taken from a large mushroom and these spores are put on the medium.

This action is done in Sterilized condition. Culture can also be purchased by paying a price directly from a research center.

2. Preparation of mother spawn:

In most laboratories, food grains (sorghum, wheat, millet) are used to prepare maternal spawn.

Mushroom seeds are usually made on wheat grains as they are available in abundance. First, the grains of wheat are boiled in about one and a half times the amount of water until it is half cooked, that is, 30 to 40 minutes.

Caution should be taken that the rash does not break. After this, the water is drained and all the grains are spread on the net so that the remaining water comes out of the grains.

Boiling-the-wheat-and-filtering-the-wheat

Boiling-the-wheat-and-filtering-the-wheat
Boiling the wheat and filtering the wheat

After one to two hours in dry air, these grains are mixed with calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate 1: 3, that is, 1 kg of boiled grains add 5 grams of calcium carbonate and 15 grams of calcium sulfate.

By adding these chemicals, not only will the acidic / alkalinity of the wheat grains be fine, but it will also prevent the grains from sticking together.

Now, these grains are cleaned in clean glass bottles of glucose or milk at about 350 grams per bottle. The water is filled and sealed with a plug made of non-absorbent cotton or poly-fill.

mixed-calcium-carbonate-and-calcium-sulfate

mixed-calcium-carbonate-and-calcium-sulfate
grains are mixed with calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate & Autoclave

Now these bottles are kept in an autoclave machine for up to 2 hours at 22 pounds per square inch pressure. When cooled, the bottles are shaken well and placed in the inoculation room.

Maternal culture:

To make maternal culture, those selected from pure culture are selected, in which the mycelium is fully spread, cut into two small pieces of fungi with the help of an insertion needle, raised in a sterile and germ-free environment. Is shifted in the opposite direction.

Now, these bottles in which the pieces of mold are transferred are incubated at a temperature of 25 ° C.

In about 20 to 25 days, the fungus spreads in all the hair and now these mother culture bottles are ready to make mushroom spawn. In these days the bottles are stirred once or twice so that the mold spreads completely over all the grains.

 

3. Making spawn from maternal culture:

To make mushroom spawn from outcrop culture, to boil wheat or sorghum, mix chemicals and fill in bottles or envelopes of polypropylene and sterilize The action is done in the same way as the method of making mother culture.

Autoclave-and-cold-colds-from-mother-spawn

Autoclave-and-cold-colds-from-mother-spawn
Full Spawn Run Bags

Sterilizing bottles and envelopes after cooling and shaking well keep them in the insertion chamber or laminar flow cabinet for at least one hour.

After this, with the help of the Sterilized glass rod, the grains of mother culture are separated and put about 15 grams of grains in each envelope or bottle.

Now mix them well and incubate at 25 ° C temperature. In 15 to 18 days, a layer of mold traps on the grains. 20 to 25 bags of mushroom spawn are made by the one maternal culture bottle.

Important tips :

  1. Make sure the inoculation chamber and its surroundings should be very clean.
  2. The inoculation process is always done near the spirit of the spirit lamp flame to avoid contamination.
  3. Switch on UV tube in the inoculation chamber at least for 30 minutes before inoculation by keeping cultures, sterilized substrate, and forceps inside the chamber.
  4. mushroom spawn takes less time to grow, mushroom spawn should be silky white.
  5. you should swab your hands and inoculation chamber using sanitize.
  6. Fresh mushroom spawn gives higher yield, therefore mushroom spawn should never be stored for more than a month
  7. All the bottles you used must be labeled indicating species, date of inoculation to know the age and type of spawn.

Get Training of Mushroom spawn production in India from the Horticulture Department.

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SUNIL YADAV
I was born into a farmer's family in a village near Banaras. I completed my studies in mechanical engineering and I am the first engineer in my village. Since childhood, I have been more attracted to nature and wanted to do something that would keep me connected to farms and farmers. I love to do research and collect the latest information about agriculture, horticulture and then I write articles about them. If my farmer brothers benefit even a little from the articles I write, I will consider myself very lucky.

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